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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 76-79

Clinical management of a complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central incisor in a 12-year-old patient

1 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, DY Patil University, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Terna Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Dr. Chirag's Dental Care Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication10-Oct-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashveeta J Shetty
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, DY Patil University, Sector 7, Highway Road, DY Patil Vidyanagar, Nerul, Mumbai, Maharashtra - 400 706
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_8_18

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Traumatic injuries to permanent maxillary anterior teeth are seen commonly in children. Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of these teeth is important. A 12-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry with fracture of the permanent maxillary right central incisor. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a complicated crown-root fracture. This case report describes the management of complicated crown-root fracture by endodontic therapy, orthodontic extrusion, fiber post placement, core build-up with composite, and esthetic restoration using polycarbonate crown.

Keywords: Crown-root fracture, glass fiber post, orthodontic extrusion, polycarbonate crown, trauma

How to cite this article:
Shetty AJ, Katge F, Poojari M, Punamiya C. Clinical management of a complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central incisor in a 12-year-old patient. Int J Pedod Rehabil 2018;3:76-9

How to cite this URL:
Shetty AJ, Katge F, Poojari M, Punamiya C. Clinical management of a complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central incisor in a 12-year-old patient. Int J Pedod Rehabil [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Nov 28];3:76-9. Available from: https://www.ijpedor.org/text.asp?2018/3/2/76/243068

  Introduction Top

Traumatic injuries to teeth and their supporting tissues usually occur in children and damage may vary from enamel fracture to avulsion, with or without pulpal involvement or alveolar bone fracture. A crown-root fracture is a type of dental trauma, usually resulting from horizontal impact, which involves enamel, dentin, and cementum, occurs below the gingival margin, and may be classified as complicated or uncomplicated, depending on the presence or absence of pulp involvement.[1],[2]

Crown-root fractures of permanent anterior teeth in young patients lead to functional and esthetic problems.[3],[4] The most commonly affected tooth is the maxillary central incisor (58.3%). Crown-root fractures in maxillary arch are seen commonly between 11- and 18-year-old adolescents and frequently present treatment problems due to the complex nature of the injury.[5],[6],[7]

This case report describes the management of complicated crown-root fracture by endodontic treatment, orthodontic root extrusion, and esthetic restoration using polycarbonate crown in a 12-year-old male patient.

  Case Report Top

A 12-year-old boy reported to the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Terna Dental College with the chief complaint of broken upper front tooth. The patient had a history of trauma to the anterior teeth 5 days ago due to fall while playing. The medical history was not significant and the findings of the extraoral examination were unremarkable. Intraoral examination revealed a complicated crown-root fracture in the maxillary right central incisor with a mobile tooth fragment that extended subgingivally in the palatal region [Figure 1]. Radiographic examination using intraoral periapical radiograph confirmed the findings of the clinical examination; the fracture line on the palatal side could be traced 2 mm below the alveolar crest. Closed apex was present with maxillary right central incisor. The periodontal space around the tooth appeared to be normal, and there were no pathologic findings in adjacent teeth [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Preoperative intraoral photograph showing complicated crownroot fracture with right maxillary central incisor.

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Figure 2: Preoperative intraoral periapical radiograph showing radiolucent line seen below cementoenamel junction.

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On the basis of clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of complicated crown-root oblique fracture, Andreasen's classification 502.54 was made.

A definitive treatment plan was made as follows: removal of fractured fragment under local anesthesia followed by endodontic therapy of residual tooth. Following this, orthodontic extrusion to move the fracture line 3 mm above the alveolar crest was planned to regain the lost biologic width. The treatment option was explained to the parents and consent was obtained for the treatment.

Anesthesia was established by local infiltration of lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline. After removal of the loose fragment, the tooth margin was clinically visible on the labial side but not on the palatal side. Probing with a periodontal probe revealed that the tooth margin on the palatal side was located subgingivally and below the alveolar crest level.

Root canal treatment was initiated. After preparing an endodontic access cavity, the root canal working length was determined to be 20 mm with a periapical radiograph. The canal was prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments (Dentsply-Maillefer, Switzerland) till F2. After the canal preparation, F2 size gutta-percha cone was lightly coated with an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus Jet, DentsplyDeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) and the root canal treatment was completed [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Root canal treatment with 11 done with rotary ProTaper files followed by postspace preparation.

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Post space was prepared with the help of Peeso reamer size 3 (Mani, INC, Japan) [Figure 3]. A “J” shaped post hook was prepared using 19-gauge stainless steel wire and cemented with glass ionomer cement. Brackets were placed on maxillary right lateral incisor and left central incisor. Extrusion was activated by elastic which was attached to the brackets and “J” hook. Within a span of 2 weeks, 1 mm extrusion was observed [Figure 4]. However, 1 mm mesial tipping of maxillary right lateral incisor was also observed. Hence, brackets were also placed on both right maxillary premolars, and E chain was placed to reposition the right lateral incisor [Figure 5]. Within 4 weeks, the desirable 3 mm extrusion was observed along with repositioning of the right lateral incisor. The brackets and J hook were then debonded [Figure 5].
Figure 4: Intracanal J hook placement and brackets placement.

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Figure 5: Distalization of right lateral incisor.

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Glass fiber post (Reforpost, Angelus® Ind. e Com Ltda. Londrina, PR, Brazil) was placed into the root canal for supporting the coronal fragment. Size 2 glass fiber post (Reforpost, Angelus® Ind. e Com Ltda. Londrina, PR, Brazil) with a 1.4 mm diameter was placed at the length of 12 mm and was luted. After cutting the excessive post, core buildup was done using composite resin (SDI, Australia) [Figure 6]. Tooth preparation was done to receive polycarbonate crown. Following tooth preparation and necessary adjustments in the crown, the polycarbonate crown was cemented using luting glass ionomer cement and postoperative radiograph was taken (Fuji 1, GC Europe) [Figure 7].
Figure 6: Core buildup and tooth preparation.

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Figure 7: Postoperative photograph and radiograph following cementation of polycarbonate crown.

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  Discussion Top

For cases of complicated crown-root fractures, there are several proposed treatment options including a mucogingival flap, an osteotomy/osteoplasty, and orthodontic or surgical extrusion followed by the reattachment of the original fragment. Another option includes the restoration of the tooth crown with a restorative material or prosthetic rehabilitation of the tooth depending on the location of the fracture line.[8],[9],[10] Extraction is also an option followed by tooth replacement.

Orthodontic extrusion of a fractured tooth maintains the periodontal tissues at the same level and restores physiological attachment. A 3–4 mm distance from the alveolar crest to the coronal extension of the remaining tooth structure has been recommended for optimal periodontal health.[11] The forced eruption should be maximum 5 mm according to Ingle and was limited to 3 mm in the present case.[12] Orthodontic extrusion leads to supragingival positioning of the fracture line.

To reinforce the cervical portion of the tooth to receive a coronal restoration, it is recommended to use an intracanal post. The post also minimizes the stresses.[13] It has been suggested that the use of a long, thin fiber post is effective for reducing the tensile stress that can lead to tooth root fractures of the anterior teeth with endodontic treatments.[14] In the present case, the fracture line was extending subgingivally, and the tooth required root canal treatment. Hence, it was decided to gain intraradicular retention using fiber posts.

At 6-month follow-up, patient was asymptomatic. Clinical evaluation revealed 0.5 mm apical migration of gingival margin and incisal edge of 11. However, there was no tooth mobility or periodontal pocket formation. Radiographic evaluation at 6 months revealed no abnormality [Figure 8].
Figure 8: Six-month follow-up photograph and radiograph.

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Long-term follow-up of the present case is needed to ascertain the long-term clinical success based on clinical and radiographic examinations.

  Conclusion Top

Crown-root fractures localized in the anterior region need to be evaluated from several perspectives including tooth vitality, tissues involved, fracture location, and the quantity of remaining tooth structure. In the present case, a tooth with complicated crown-root fracture was successfully managed by endodontic therapy, orthodontic extrusion, fiber post placement, core build-up with composite, and esthetic restoration using polycarbonate crown. Long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the long-term clinical success of the case.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the legal guardian has given his consent for images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The guardian understands that names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal patient identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM. Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth. 4th ed. Oxford: Blackwell; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 1
Turgut MD, Gönül N, Altay N. Multiple complicated crown-root fracture of a permanent incisor. Dent Traumatol 2004;20:288-92.  Back to cited text no. 2
Cortes MI, Marcenes W, Sheiham A. Impact of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth on the oral health-related quality of life in 12-14-year-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:193-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Lee JY, Divaris K. Hidden consequences of dental trauma: The social and psychological effects. Pediatr Dent 2009;31:96-101.  Back to cited text no. 4
Andreasen FM. Reattachment of subgingivally fractured central incisor with an open apex. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:263.  Back to cited text no. 5
Castro JC, Poi WR, Manfrin TM, Zina LG. Analysis of the crown fractures and crown-root fractures due to dental trauma assisted by the integrated clinic from 1992 to 2002. Dent Traumatol 2005;21:121-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
de Castro MA, Poi WR, de Castro JC, Panzarini SR, Sonoda CK, Trevisan CL, et al. Crown and crown-root fractures: An evaluation of the treatment plans for management proposed by 154 specialists in restorative dentistry. Dent Traumatol 2010;26:236-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
Nandlal B, Daneswari V. Restoring biological width in crown-root fracture: A periodontal concern. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2007; 25 (Suppl): S20-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
Poi WR, Cardoso Lde C, de Castro JC, Cintra LT, Gulinelli JL, de Lazari JA, et al. Multidisciplinary treatment approach for crown fracture and crown-root fracture – A case report. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:51-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
Emerich-Poplatek K, Sawicki L, Bodal M, Adamowicz-Klepalska B. Forced eruption after crown/root fracture with a simple and aesthetic method using the fractured crown. Dent Traumatol 2005;21:165-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
Kocadereli I, Tasman F, Guner SB. Combined endodontic-orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment of fractured teeth. Case the tooth was in new corrected position report. Aust Dent J 1998;43:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
Ingle JI, Bakland LK. Endodontics. 5th ed. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker, 2002.  Back to cited text no. 12
Kumar A, Jyothi KN. Reattachment of fractured tooth using self etching adhesive and esthetic fiber post. J Dent Sci Res 2010;1:75-83.  Back to cited text no. 13
Nakamura T, Ohyama T, Waki T, Kinuta S, Wakabayashi K, Mutobe Y, et al. Stress analysis of endodontically treated anterior teeth restored with different types of post material. Dent Mater J 2006;25:145-50.  Back to cited text no. 14


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]


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