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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Comprehensive knowledge regarding oral habits amongst general and specialist dental practitioners


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Dr. M. G. R Educational and Research Institute University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication7-Sep-2016

Correspondence Address:
Sujitha Balraj
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Dr. M. G. R Educational and Research Institute University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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  Abstract 

Context: Dentists play an important role in identifying the existence of deleterious oral habits, verifying the association between habits and malocclusion and planning and establishing the treatment for it. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the comprehensive knowledge of BDS and MDS practitioners on oral habits . Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital. A total of 90 dental surgeons, selected randomly by stratified sampling method, were involved in this study, of which 32 were BDS and 58 were MDS from different specialties. Statistical Analysis Used: The absolute and percentage frequencies were obtained for data analysis (descriptive statistical techniques). The existence of a significant association between BDS and MDS practitioners was verified using bivariate analysis (Yates' Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests). Results: This questionnaire-based study depicts the response of the dental practitioners toward the prevalence, etiology, clinical features, and treatment plan of adverse oral habits. When compared to MDS practitioners, BDS practitioners had less knowledge on the identification and early diagnosis of the adverse effects on oral habits. Conclusions: As deleterious oral habits in children are devastating conditions to be noted in literature of dentistry, more importance should be emphasized by the dentist.

Keywords: BDS practitioners, knowledge, MDS practitioners, oral habits


How to cite this article:
Balraj S, Moses J, Pari M A, Inbanathan JG. Comprehensive knowledge regarding oral habits amongst general and specialist dental practitioners. Int J Pedod Rehabil 2016;1:1-4

How to cite this URL:
Balraj S, Moses J, Pari M A, Inbanathan JG. Comprehensive knowledge regarding oral habits amongst general and specialist dental practitioners. Int J Pedod Rehabil [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 May 15];1:1-4. Available from: https://www.ijpedor.org/text.asp?2016/1/1/1/189963


  Introduction Top


Boucher defined habit as a tendency toward an act or an act that has become a repeated performance, relatively fixed, consistent, easy to perform, and almost automatic. Habits are acquired automatisms, represented by an altered pattern of muscle contraction with complex characteristics, which proceed unconsciously and on a regular basis. [1] Deleterious habitual patterns of muscle behavior often are associated with perverted or impeded osseous growth, tooth malposition, disturbed breathing habits, difficulties in speech, imbalance the facial musculature, and psychological problems. [2] The habit may have a deep-rooted emotional factor involved and may be associated with insecurities, loneliness, or neglect experienced by the child. The relative prevalence of oral habit in school-going children in India has been reported to be as low as 3% in North India [3] and 30% in South India. [4] Oral habits, especially if they persist beyond the preschool age, have been implicated as an important environmental etiological factor associated with the development of malocclusion. [5] Oral habit-induced malocclusion depends on the frequency, intensity, and duration of habit action. [6] Hence, dentists play an important role in verifying the existence of association between malocclusion and deleterious oral habits and planning and establishing the treatment for it. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the comprehensive knowledge of BDS and MDS practitioners on oral habits and their appropriate treatment for it.


  Subjects and Methods Top


The study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

A total of 90 dental surgeons, selected randomly by stratified sampling method, were involved in this study [Table 1], of which 32 were BDS and 58 were MDS from different specialties such as Prosthodontics, Endodontics, Oral Pathology, Periodontics, Oral Medicine, Orthodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Public Health Dentistry [Table 2].
Table 1: Total number of practitioners involved


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Table 2: Number of practitioners from different specialities


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Inclusion criteria

  1. The study included BDS and MDS practitioners who are designated in various department at Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital
  2. MDS specialties other than pedodontics and preventive dentistry are included in the study.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Postgraduate students
  2. Dental degree holders who are in administration section.
Questionnaire

It is a questionnaire-based study with 20 self-explanatory questions. Scoring was given to each question to make up to 100 marks, which means 100%. Thus, the questionnaires were given to practitioners individually, and scores had been valued and assessed.

Statistical analysis

The absolute and percentage frequencies were obtained for data analysis (descriptive statistical techniques). The existence of significant association between BDS and MDS practitioners was verified using bivariate analysis (Yates' Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests).


  Results Top


The most prevalent adverse oral habit that the practitioners of our study had come across was thumb sucking habit (60%), of which 43.8% were BDS and 69% were MDS [Table 3]. About 44.4% of practitioners had told that oral habits have to be treated between the ages of 3 and 6 years. In that, almost 41.4% of MDS practitioners have suggested that these oral habits have to be treated between the ages of 6 and 10 years and 56.3% of BDS practitioners have suggested between the ages of 3 and 6 years [Table 4]. For tongue thrusting habit, 68.9% of practitioners had told that proclination of maxillary anteriors was the predominant intraoral finding seen in children , of which 75.9% were MDS and 56.3% were BDS practitioners [Table 5]. Around 88.9% of practitioners had told that oral screen would be preferred as habit breaking appliance for the patient with mouth breathing habit, of which 89.7% were MDS and 87.5% were BDS practitioners [Table 6].
Table 3: Prevalence rate of various adverse oral habits


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Table 4: Preferred age group for the treatment of adverse oral habits by different practitioners


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Table 5: Predominant intraoral finding of tongue thrusting habit


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Table 6: Preferred habit breaking appliance for mouth breathing habit


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  Discussion Top


Quashie-Williams et al. found that 34.1% of children had deleterious oral habit. [7] A very few studies have been reported in literature about the prevalence of deleterious oral habits in children aged 10 years and above. [8] Thumb sucking is the most common oral habit, and it is reported that its prevalence is between 13% and 100% in some societies.

Kharbanda et al. observed the occurrence of digit sucking, most frequently, in 50% of the children. [5] The prevalence of this habit is decreased as age increases, and mostly, it is stopped by 4 years of age. [9],[10] Hence, an attempt was made in the present study to find out the knowledge of BDS and MDS about the prevalence of adverse oral habits and their features in young children and adolescents and to find out their treatment plan for those children. Mouth breathing habit was the second most prevalent habit in the study conducted by Bhayya and Shyagali, [11] which correlates with our current study in which 20% of total practitioners had told the same.

Oral habits may cause disorders on teeth and supportive tissues, depending on intensity or how often the action is performed, frequency or how often the action is repeated per day, and duration or how long the action has been performed. [12] Malocclusion present as anterior open-bite, anterior protrusion, anterior-posterior cross-bite, high tapered palate, and crowded dentition may be caused by finger sucking, tongue thrusting, and mouth breathing. [6] Such habits are considered to be normal up to 4-5 years of age; [9] hence, the question of what age it has to be treated was included in the questionnaire of the present study.

Continuation of the habit past the age at which the permanent incisors erupt may, however, prove detrimental. Thus, there are very few reports which describe a coordination and thorough psychological investigation associated with oral habits that may be one of the causative factors associated with oral habits. The habit of sucking the finger (or thumb) is considered to be performed for oral gratification and psychological reassurance. [13] Thus, in this study, most of the MDS practitioners (51.7%) had told that psychological disturbances would be probable etiological factor for thumb sucking habit.

Apart from these questions, other parameters were also dealt and assessed regarding oral habits. For mouth breathing habit, 42.2% of practitioners had told that enlarged adenoids were the most common etiological factor, of which 44.8% were MDS and 37.5% were BDS practitioners.

For children with thumb sucking habit, appliances consisting of cribs in the anterior region are found to be very effective as reminders as well as physical restrainers. [14],[15],[16],[17] About 53.3% of practitioners had told that they would prefer palatal crib as the habit breaking appliance for a child with sucking habit, in which 56.3% were MDS and 51.7 were BDS practitioners. Around 40% had told that they would like to educate the parents regarding adverse oral habits by giving pamphlets, in which 48.3% were MDS practitioners.


  Conclusion Top


This questionnaire-based study depicts the response of the dental practitioners toward the prevalence, etiology, clinical features, and treatment plan of adverse oral habits. When compared to MDS practitioners, BDS practitioners had less knowledge on the identification and early diagnosis of the adverse effects on oral habits. As deleterious oral habits in children are devastating conditions to be noted in literature of dentistry, more importance should be emphasized by the dentist.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Moyers RE, editor. Etiology of malocclusion. In: Ortodontia. 3 rd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 1991. p. 127-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shah AF, Batra M, Sudeep CB, Gupta M, Ambildhok K, Rishikesh K. Oral habits and their implications. Ann Med 2014;1:179-86.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Guaba K, Ashima G, Tewari A, Utreja A. Prevalence of malocclusion and abnormal oral habits in North Indian rural children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1998;16:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Shetty SR, Munshi AK. Oral habits in children - a prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1998;16:61-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Kharbanda OP, Sidhu SS, Sundaram K, Shukla DK. Oral habits in school going children of Delhi: A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2003;21:120-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Gildasya E, Riyanti E, Hidayat S. Prevalence of oral habits in homeless children under care of Yayasan Bahtera Bandung. Dent J (Maj Ked Gigi) 2006;39:165-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Quashie-Williams R, Dacosta OO, Isiekwe MC. The prevalence of oral habits among 4 to 15 years old school children in Lagos, Nigerian. J Health Biomed Sci 2007;6:78-82.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Krishnappa S, Rani MS, Gowda R. Mapping the prevalence of deleterious oral habits among 10-16-year-old children in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2015;13:399-404.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.
Maguire JA. The evaluation and treatment of pediatric oral habits. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:659-69.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Larson EF. The prevalence and etiology of prolonged dumy and finger sucking habit. Am J Orthod 1985;87:172-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bhayya DP, Shyagali TR. Prevalence of oral habits in 11-13 year-old school children in Gulbarga city, India. Virtual J Orthod 2009;8:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Christensen J, Fields HW, Adair SM. Oral habits. In: Pinkham JR, editor. Pediatric Dentistry Infancy Through Adolescence. 4 th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 431-7, 470.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Cozza P, Baccetti T, Franchi L, Mucedero M, Polimeni A. Transverse features of subjects with sucking habits and facial hyperdivergency in the mixed dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;132:226-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.
Jacobson A. Helping the thumb-sucking child. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999;116:A1.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Katz CR, Rosenblatt A, Gondim PP. Nonnutritive sucking habits in Brazilian children: Effects on deciduous dentition and relationship with facial morphology. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;126:53-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    
16.
Graber TM. Thumb- and finger-sucking. Am J Orthod 1959;45:258-64.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Davidson L. Thumb and finger sucking. Pediatr Rev 2008;29:207-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
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