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  Most popular articles (Since July 12, 2016)

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Diagnostic methods for early detection of dental caries - A review
Madhumitha Mohanraj, V Ratna Prabhu, R Senthil
January-June 2016, 1(1):29-36
Management of dental caries demands early detection of carious lesions. This article provides an overview of the state of the art methodologies for the detection and assessment of early carious lesions. This review is based on PubMed for available literature on caries detection methodology and tools, using terms such as "early detection of caries," "caries detection methods or tools," "transillumination," "fluorescence," and "newer caries detection method," Conventional or the traditional methods for the detection of caries have failed to detect early incipient caries effectively. The advanced methods provide promising results in detection both early caries and also caries occurring on all surfaces of the tooth, which paves the way for a more preventive approach to caries management. Each caries detection tool has advantages and disadvantages; some perform better on certain surfaces than others. Newer diagnostic methods which are still under research may prove to be very effective for early detection of caries in the near future. The change in the paradigm to minimally invasive dentistry has ascertained the field of dentistry to a more preventive approach to caries management, which demands a proper caries risk assessment and an early detection of caries. Not all the methods accurately detect early lesions. Hence, the clinician must ascertain as to which method and diagnostic tool should be used for clinical assessment of early detection of caries.
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Smart materials-making pediatric dentistry bio-smart
Parul Jain, Rahul Kaul, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
July-December 2017, 2(2):55-59
As of now, there has been no single material in dentistry that fulfills all the requirements of an ideal material. While the search for an “ideal material” continues, a newer generation of materials has been introduced. The adjective “smart” implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners – traits that are also found in living organisms. These materials may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimulus such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic field. Some of these are “bio-mimetic” in nature while others are “bio-responsive.” These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of the treatment procedures. This paper attempts to highlight some of the currently available “smart materials” in pediatric dentistry which may over the course of years help us move toward a new era of bio-smart dentistry.
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Cleft lip and cleft palate: Role of a pediatric dentist in its management
Rahul Kaul, Parul Jain, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2017, 2(1):1-6
Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies requiring multidisciplinary care. Such anomaly causes many problems such as impaired suckling, defective speech, deafness, malocclusion, gross facial deformity, and severe psychological problems. Cleft of the lip and palate is one such condition that occurs at such a strategic place in the orofacial region and at such a crucial time that it becomes a complex congenital deformity. Pediatric dentist has a vital role to play right from the neonatal period up to phase of permanent dentition. This review describes a vital role played by pediatric dentist, may it be preventive, restorative, or the interventional care. In the present review article, we offer an extensive review of the literature found in the ISI Web of Knowledge, Index Copernicus, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. The key words searched were “Cleft lip,” “Cleft Palate,” “Cleft lip and palate,' “Dentist,” “Pediatric Dentist” “Pedodontist,” “Management,” and “dental treatment.”
  4,167 777 1
Crowns for primary anterior teeth
Joshua Ng Chor Yang, Geo Mani
July-December 2016, 1(2):75-78
Esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth in young children is a common sight in a dental clinic. Most of these young children report with rampant caries, nursing bottle caries, and fractured tooth due to trauma in the anterior region or even cases of dental caries. A major component while restoring anterior teeth is esthetics, being an important factor, especially in children as it affects their self-esteem and confidence. Also, in children, it can be challenging due to the smaller size of tooth, larger pulp chambers, and not-to-mention issues related to child behavior. Over the years, many types of crowns have been developed and advanced to aid the clinician in rehabilitating deciduous anterior teeth.
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Esthetic zirconia crown in pedodontics
Amit Khatri
January-June 2017, 2(1):31-33
There are different types of restorations for complete crown coverage. These restoration techniques include polycarbonate crowns, acid etched crown, stainless steel crown (SSC), open–faced SSC with veneer placed on chair side and commercially veneered SSC. Each of these techniques presents technical, functional or esthetic compromises that complicate their efficient and effective usage. Recently, zirconium dioxide ceramic prefabricated crown has been used in the treatment of primary teeth. The choice of full coverage restoration for primary teeth must provide an esthetic appearance in addition to restoring function and durability. This article presents an overview of zirconia crowns in pedodontics and a case study of full coronal restoration using zirconia crown.
  2,975 498 -
Esthetic anterior fixed functional space maintainer
Diptangshu Garai, Chiranjit Ghosh, Pradip Kumar Mandal, Sudipta Kar
July-December 2017, 2(2):90-92
Traumatic dental injury is one of the main causes of premature loss of maxillary anterior teeth in schoolgoing children, causing psychological trauma both to patient as well as parents. In that situation, choice of treatment is maintaining the space by space maintainer which may be fixed/removable or functional/nonfunctional. This article describes rehabilitation of a 4½-year-old child after avulsion of the maxillary central incisor, using fixed functional anterior esthetic space maintainer.
  2,952 345 -
Defluoridation of water using natural adsorbents
Kola Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, P Niharika, M Ajay Reddy, Harivinder Reddy, V Daneswari
July-December 2017, 2(2):51-54
Fluoride is often called a two-edged sword. In the human system, this fluoride has a dual personality, a destructive effect (>1.5 ppm – dental and skeletal fluorosis), and a beneficial effect (up to1.0 ppm – caries prevention and health promotion). World Health Organization recommends that the fluoride content in drinking water should be in the range of 1.0–1.5 ppm. Fluoride concentrations beyond the standards cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water, adsorption method is relatively simple, economical, and appropriate for drinking water treatment, especially for small communities. In this review, a list of various adsorbents and their adsorption capacities for fluoride are overviewed with various affecting parameters.
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Stretching new boundaries of caries prevention with silver diamine fluoride: A review of literature
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Sagar Lahu Pabale, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-4
Silver diamine fluoride can arrest dental caries and prevents its progression. By doing so, it provides an alternative care path for those patients in whom traditional restorative treatment cannot be done, for example, children lacking cooperating ability. Although silver diamine fluoride had been used as a caries preventive measure in 1970s in Japan, it had not become popular in the other part of the world. Now, many countries have recommend the use of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution for caries prevention as well as for caries arrest. Recently, The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry provided the guidelines regarding the use of silver diamine fluoride for dental caries management in children and adolescent including those with special healthcare needs.
  2,358 564 -
Complete mouth rehabilitation of children with early childhood caries: A case report of three cases
Divya Doneria, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Deepak Chauhan
January-June 2017, 2(1):37-40
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a major health concern that affects the oral health of infants and children negatively. Early loss of primary anterior teeth due to trauma or caries can cause loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthetics, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits. The restoration of grossly decayed deciduous teeth especially anterior ones presents a major challenge to dentists, particularly in uncooperative children. The following case report of cases of early childhood caries documents the restoration of severely decayed deciduous teeth to improve their oral and general health and help them to gain more self-confidence.
  2,201 348 -
Prevalence of dental caries in school going children of both urban and rural areas in Mahbubnagar district, Telangana state, (India): An epidemiological study
Kola Srikanth Reddy, Harika Rapala, Balaji Kethineni, Harvindher Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Puppala Ravindhar
January-June 2017, 2(1):7-13
Background: Dental caries is one of the most common oral problems affecting children globally involving the people of all region and society. It can be seen in all age groups of children involving both deciduous and permanent teeth. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is between 6 and 12 years of age. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentition among school-going children in Mahbubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2000 children in different areas of Mahbubnagar district in the age group of 6–12 years. The dental caries status was assessed by decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index using the World Health Organization criteria 1997. Collected data from each patient are subjected to statistical analysis to know the prevalence of dental caries. Results: Dental caries in both primary dentition and permanent dentition was 64.2% and 26.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children (P > 0.05). The overall mean dmft score of both males and females is 1.49 ± 1.56; the overall mean DMFT score of both males and females is 0.57 ± 1.23. Conclusion: The present study showed that the frequency of caries was found to be higher in Northern region of Mahbubnagar. The dental caries was more in 7–8-year-old children and less in 11–12-year-old children whereas less in local villages of Mahbubnagar.
  2,115 261 -
Dental office design and waste care management in infection control
Sindhuja Krishnan, Saravana Pandian
January-June 2016, 1(1):37-41
Infection control is the most vital and fundamental aspect of health-care practice pertaining to the faculties of medicine, surgery, or dentistry. The nature of dental procedures involves occupational exposure to blood and saliva that might carry these microorganisms. Dental health-care professionals and dental patients are, therefore, at a high risk for developing infectious diseases. This article emphasizes the importance of infection control in a dental office. It describes the protocol to be followed in a dental clinic setup. Steps in health care waste management have also been discussed. It is extremely important for a dentist to follow a protocol to facilitate cross-infection control in the office and to prevent cross-contamination between the patients, dentists, assistants, and ancillary staff. Personal protection, decontamination/sterilization of instruments and materials, and formulation of an infection control policy have been discussed.
  2,006 240 -
Evaluation of effectiveness of dental apps in management of child behaviour: A pilot study
Vidyavathi H Patil, Karan Vaid, Niraj S Gokhale, Parin Shah, Madhura Mundada, Shivayogi M Hugar
January-June 2017, 2(1):14-18
Background: We see children from all age groups, be it a toddler to a teenager, stuck up to the mobile phone playing interactive games or even browsing internet entertainment holds a major share in the field of mobile applications, be it from listening to music or playing online games. However, very little has happened in favor of pediatric dentistry or even educating the patients about the procedures of their treatment which can help reduce their fear or apprehension. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental apps in the management of child's anxiety and behavior. Materials and Methods: Sixty children (24 girls and 36 boys) were made to use mobile dental app called “My Little Dentist” developed by Tenlogix Games available on the Google Play Store on the android platform of the smartphones. Their anxiety levels were noted before and after playing the game using the face imaging scale. Results: The results were found to be highly significant; 86.67% patients turned from a negative to positive behavior, 11.67% from positive to definitely positive, and 1.67% from definitely negative to negative according to Frankl's behavior rating scale. Conclusion: The mobile dental app was found to be very useful in the dental setup to reduce the fear and anxiety of the pediatric patients.
  1,627 284 -
Evaluation of parental attitude and practice on the primary teeth of their children in Chennai: An hospital survey
Anjana Mounissamy, Joyson Moses, Jai Ganesh, M Arulpari
January-June 2016, 1(1):10-14
Introduction: Teeth are critical to the growth and development of a child. This survey evaluated the parental attitude and practices on the primary teeth of their children. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on the parents who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, during October and November 2015. A total of 106 parents with 2-12 years children who visited for dental treatment of their children were involved in the study with their consent. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and the collected data were computed and analyzed using IBM-SPSS 19. Descriptive statistics was used; frequency distribution including number and percentage was calculated and inferences drawn. Results: Majority of the participants were from low socioeconomic status. About 78.3% of them visited a dental office when their children experienced toothache/trauma, 33% felt regular dental check is not important, 20.8% said treating primary teeth was not necessary, 10.4% used baby toothpaste, 96.2% did not use mouthwash, majority of the children brushed with toothpaste/powder only once daily, and 69% had no idea whether toothpaste contains fluoride. They were unaware of the pediatric oral health-care information provision and had poor knowledge. Conclusion: It was concluded that the pediatric dental health-care attitude and practice among the parents needs to be revisited.
  1,480 259 -
An unusual oropharyngeal trauma due to toothbrush in a 3-year-old child: A case report and review
MS Girish, Revathi Jaisingh, Seema Deshmukh, MD Indira
January-June 2016, 1(1):19-21
Toothbrushing as an oral hygiene measure has become an integral part of daily routine and regarded as safe for children. Toothbrush has been designed in such a way that it should not harm the soft tissues. Oropharyngeal injuries in children due to toothbrush while brushing the teeth can damage the vital tissues and vessels around the oropharynx and can end up with severe complications. Here, we report a case of a 3-year-old female child who had a severe oropharyngeal trauma while brushing was performed against to the child's wish.
  1,590 118 -
Comparative practice of behavior management techniques in pediatric patients among BDS and MDS practitioners of other specialties
Sharanya Ravindran, Joyson Moses, M Arul Pari, Jai Ganesh Inbanathan
July-December 2016, 1(2):45-48
Context: Dentist plays a unique role in treatment plan for the child patient. Without a proper behavior management technique, there would not be a successful treatment outcome. Behavior management techniques among various dentists are studied. Aims: The aim of the present study is to compare the behavior management techniques of pediatric patients among undergraduate and postgraduate practitioners of other specialties. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. A total of 88 dental surgeons were selected randomly by stratifies sampling method, in which 22 were undergraduate dentists and 66 were postgraduate dentists from different specialties. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical techniques and bivariate analysis were used. Results: Postgraduate dentists of other specialties were more likely to accept behavior management techniques than undergraduate practitioners. Conclusions: It was concluded that practitioners should recognize that both didactic and clinical educational components may influence on the students. Hence, it is necessary that graduate dentists must be aware of the behavior modification techniques.
  1,417 233 -
Use of anesthesia in pediatric dentistry: A cross-sectional survey
A Naurin Salma, Mahesh Ramakrishnan
January-June 2016, 1(1):5-9
Aim: The aim of this study is to access the knowledge and use of dental anesthesia in pediatric dentistry. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of dental anesthesia among pediatric dentists. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among pediatric dentists who were practicing in Chennai, South India. A questionnaire was distributed which include questions relating to the use of local and topical anesthetics. Background: Anesthetic injection is the dental procedure that produces the greatest negative response in children. Pain and anxiety can reduce the efficacy of anesthesia in pediatric patients. This fear of anesthesia is often manifested as a behavior management problem, with a few pediatric patients lacking good coping skills and displaying hysterical behavior in anticipation of discomfort. Anxiety is the most disturbing experience for children, a response that sometimes can only be controlled with techniques beyond anesthesia. There are several factors that can predispose a patient to this overdose of anesthetic. The patient factors include age, weight, other medications, sex, presence of other systemic disorders, genetics, and mental attitude, and environment. There is a lack of studies accessing the usage and status of anesthesia in pediatric dentistry. Results: Eighty-eight percent used exact body weight to determine local anesthetic dosage. Only 11% of the respondents were using <10 s to inject a full cartridge. Topical anesthetics were used by most of the dentists. Most patients (98%) disliked the taste of topical anesthetics, and adverse drug reactions were rarely seen. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that pediatric dentists are most commonly used local anesthetics as the preferred type and shorter needle for infiltrations and blocks. Most were taking anywhere from 31 to 60 s to inject a cartridge. Topical anesthetics were used by most and also the preferred one. However, their perception of the effectiveness of topical anesthetics varied. There also appears to be a need to develop newer and better mode of topical anesthetic delivery system in the pediatric dental population.
  1,383 248 -
Dermatoglyphics: A new diagnostic tool in detection of dental caries in children with special health-care needs
K Veera Kishore Kumar Reddy, K Naveen Kumar, Venket Subramaniyan, Harshini Togaru, Srinivasan Kannaiah, Rohini Reddy
January-June 2018, 3(1):18-22
Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of dermal ridge configurations on palmar and plantar surfaces of the hands and feet. Dermal ridges and primary palate, both are formed during 6th–7th week of intrauterine life; therefore, hereditary and environmental factors causing changes in fingerprint patterns may also lead to dental anomalies. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the correlation between dermatoglyphic peculiarities and caries experience in special children. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 children aged 6–16 years were selected using simple random sampling technique. Their fingerprints were recorded with duplicating ink and caries experience was assessed using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. Results: Chi-square test revealed a significant statistical association between the whorl and loop patterns in caries and caries-free groups. The frequency of whorls was found to be more in caries group and frequency of loops more in caries-free group. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics could be an effective method as an early and noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in special children so as to initiate the preventive oral health measures at an early age.
  1,387 222 -
Break the barrier: Bringing children with special health care needs into mainstream dentistry
Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, S Sujatha
January-June 2016, 1(1):42-44
Dental treatment is the most common unmet need for children with special health care needs, as they present with a complex assay of developmental delays and unusual issues, all of which can complicate routine dental examination and treatment. It is a greater challenge for the dentist to treat children with special health care needs (SHCNs) and special arrangements to provide dental care for these patients. This review paper highlights about different barriers encountered by the children with SHCNs, their parents, and the dentist and possible ways of breaking the barriers.
  1,389 207 -
Surgical management of mucocele in buccal mucosa
G Lavanya, Jeevanandan Ganesh, E.M.G. Subramanian
January-June 2016, 1(1):26-28
Mucocele is a salivary gland lesion that occurs due to extravasation of the mucus into the fibrous connective tissue leading to a cyst-like cavity. The wall of the cavity is formed by compressed bundles of collagen fibrils and is filled with mucin. We report a case of mucocele in the right buccal mucosa due to unknown origin.
  1,440 118 -
Comprehensive management of complicated crown fracture in a 10-year-old child
Siddharth Anand, Deepa Yeshwanth Hegde, Ramakrishna Yeluri, Updesh Masih, Priti Yadav, Shailendra Kumar
January-June 2017, 2(1):46-50
Trauma to the maxillary anterior teeth is a common incidence in young patients. Pediatric dentists have to deal with such dental traumatic injuries on a regular basis in their daily routine practice. Some clinical studies have reported reattachment of fractured tooth segment using adhesive resin cement and dentine bonding agent with or without postplacement. This case report presents a comprehensive management of complicated crown fracture in the maxillary anterior teeth with reattachment of the fractured tooth segment with dual-cure adhesive resin and a prefabricated glass-reinforced composite fiber post followed by a permanent restoration.
  1,343 153 -
Microbial evaluation of plaque on 3M ESPE and kids stainless steel crown in primary molars
Divya Subramanyam, Deepa Gurunathan
July-December 2016, 1(2):60-63
Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the oral hygiene and microbial adhesion on the 3M stainless steel crown (SSC) and Kids crown in primary molars. Materials and Methods: Seven children aged 4-8 years were selected from the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry. Children included in the study had lower right or left both first and second primary molars that required SSC. The tooth was restored with 3M crown and Kids crown. The swabs were collected before and immediately after the cementation of crowns and after 1 week. Oral hygiene index (OHI) was also evaluated. The swabs were incubated in mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and the total number of Streptococcus mutans was counted and expressed in colony forming units. Results: There was no statistically significant difference seen in the microbial count and OHI-simplified between the 3M and Kids crown and natural teeth. Conclusion: The microbial adhesion of plaque and S. mutans was seen higher on the Kids crown. However, there was no significant difference between 3M ESPE and Kids crown.
  1,266 199 -
Accidental ingestion of foreign body in dental practice and its management
Vishnu Prasad
January-June 2018, 3(1):5-7
Foreign body aspiration or ingestion can be a potential complication or a life-threatening emergency situation. During routine dental treatment, the handling of dental objects requires particular care, especially with dental bridges and files. Precautionary measures have to be taken to avoid such situation. A dentist must be able to manage emergency situations in which accidental swallowing of dental instruments and materials occur. This article reviews the signs and symptoms, management, complications, and precautions of aspiration or ingestion of foreign bodies.
  1,242 203 -
A comparative evaluation of formocresol and sodium hypochlorite as agents for pulpotomy in primary molars: A pilot study
K Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, M Ajay Reddy, K Harivinder Reddy, B Rangarao
July-December 2017, 2(2):60-65
Aim: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomy in primary molars, following the use of formocresol (FC) versus sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5%. Materials and Methods: In the present study, pulpotomies were conducted on sixty primary molars of 5–8-year-old children who referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The selected teeth were equally distributed and randomly assigned into two groups of FC and NaOCl 5%. After taking the initial radiographs, standard pulpotomy was carried out using FC and NaOCl 5%; pulp chamber was filled with intermediate restorative material and restored with stainless steel crown cemented with glass ionomer cement. Results: The control (FC) and experimental (NaOCl 5%) groups demonstrated 96.3% clinical success at 3 and 6 months. The NaOCl group had 88.9% radiographic success at 3 months and 88.4% at 6 months. The FC group had 76.9% and 72% radiographic success at 3 and 6 months, respectively. No significant differences were found in clinical and radiological outcomes between two groups at 3 and 6 months (Pearson's test, Fishers exact test; P = 0.02 and P = 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl demonstrated clinical and radiological success comparable to FC.
  1,209 214 -
Association of nonnutritive sucking habits and malocclusion: A cross-sectional study
Nikhitha Ramesh, Deepa Guruanthan, Shanmugaavel A Karthikeyan
January-June 2016, 1(1):15-18
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between nonnutritive sucking habits (NNSHs) and development of malocclusion. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the association of NNSHs and malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 children between the age group of 3-6 years were examined for the presence of NNSHs, and factors that influence the habit were assessed through a questionnaire that was distributed to the parents of all the children and their oral cavity was examined for the presence of malocclusion. Results: Out of the 230 children who took part in the study, 61% of them showed the presence of a digit-sucking habit. Factors such as parent's education, socioeconomic factors, and duration of breastfeeding had a positive influence on NNSH. It was found that 58.1% of digit suckers showed the presence of malocclusion. Conclusion: Digit-sucking habits were found in three-fourth of the children and found a significant association between NNSH and malocclusion.
  1,226 165 -
Management of traumatic dental injury, midline diastema, and single tooth crossbite in a 9-year-old child: A pediatric dentistry approach
Sivakumar Nuvvula, Namratha Tharay, S.V.S.G. Nirmala, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
January-June 2016, 1(1):22-25
Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) and malocclusion are the most common conditions affecting the esthetics during the mixed dentition period of children. The objective of the treatment should be conservative, economical, and comfortable to the patient, with satisfaction being the major treatment outcome. The purpose of this report is to describe the conservative management of TDI using calcium hydroxide apexification technique in a boy aged 9 years, along with correction of midline diastema and anterior crossbite by a removable appliance incorporating a single finger spring, Z-spring, and posterior bite plane, respectively.
  1,169 213 -