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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2019
Volume 4 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 41-89

Online since Friday, November 29, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Oral health practices, knowledge, and attitudes among primary schoolchildren in Derna City, Libya: A cross-sectional survey p. 41
Raga A Elzahaf, Ashraf S Elzer, Sakina Edwebi
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_8_19  
Background and Aim: Dental caries is a major public health problem with a high prevalence and incidence among schoolchildren, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to assess the practices, knowledge, and attitude of primary schoolchildren toward oral health and dental care as well as to evaluate the factors that determine these variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1288 primary schoolchildren of 14 schools located in Derna city, Libya, from February to May 2016. Government and private schools were selected by systematic random sampling method. All participants were asked to complete a comprehensive questionnaire adopted from Peterson et al. and Stenberg et al. Investigators explained the questionnaire, and the children independently filled up the questionnaire without giving their names. The data were coded and analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Results: One thousand two hundred and eighty-eight children successfully completed the questionnaire. The schoolchildren included 788 (62.3%) females and 476 (37.7%) males. Schoolchildren's age ranged from 9 to 15 years, with a mean age of 12.20 ± 1.91 years. The study revealed that more than half of the children had used good correct oral health practices (55.8%), more than two-third had low knowledge (67.2%), and 74.7% were found to have bad attitude. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge and careless attitude among schoolchildren with regard to oral health. Children need to be motivated about the importance of oral health in school and at home.
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Prevalence, distribution, and condition of persistent primary teeth in children and adolescents p. 50
Pinar Kinay Taran, Aysegül Ölmez
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_32_18  
Aim: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and condition of persistent primary teeth (PPT) among a group of Turkish children. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 9632 panoramic radiographies were utilized. The images belonged to patients aged 9–15 years, of which 4301 were female and 5331 were male. Recorded data within the study comprises the age and gender of each patient, total number of PPT observed and for each PPT; its location, presence/absence of a permanent successor, and its status. Results: The prevalence of PPT was 4.5% in the Turkish subpopulation. PPT were found more frequently in the maxilla (62.4%) and the most frequent PPT were maxillary canine (42.5%). Only 36.7% of PPT had congenital absence of their permanent successors. Root resorption was the most common condition observed at the presence of PPT (37.9%). Other conditions observed were infraocclusion (11.0%), restorations (10.9%), periapical lesion (4.3%), carious lesion (1.3%), and root canal treatment (0.5%). Besides, tipping was seen in 3.3% of the adjacent teeth of PPT. Conclusions: PPT were observed in a significant number of children and adolescents. The most common type of PPT seen on the dental arch was maxillary primary canines. Root resorption and infraocclusion were frequently observed in PPT.
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Assessment of lip phenotype and its association with anterior tooth alignment in children p. 55
Anusha Balavanthapu, Suzan Sahana, Aron Arun Kumar Vasa
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_2_19  
Background: Lip types are typical for every person, and there are three basic lip phenotypes in humans. Uncertainty exists as to whether a general trend follows in the classification of lip according to the dental alignment. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between lip phenotype and the type of anterior tooth alignment. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 years screened before the study and equally divided (n = 50) based on lip phenotypes given by Cutbirth classification on the basis of lip form as high, moderate, and straight lip. Parameters assessed included anterior well-aligned teeth, anterior malaligned teeth, crowding, spacing, midline diastema, increased anterior maxillary overjet, anterior deep bite, and retroclined anterior teeth. Scores for each of these morphologic characteristics were determined by direct measurement. Descriptive and analytical statistics were done. Results: The Chi-square test was used to check differences in proportions. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Statistical significant correlations were observed between anterior tooth alignment and the lip phenotype. Conclusion: The malaligned anterior teeth were significantly higher in children with high and moderate lip phenotypes, whereas the well-aligned anterior teeth were a general trend that existed in children with straight lip phenotype.
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Association between immobile over-retained primary incisors, diet consistency, and the presence of crowding p. 60
Ramesh Krishnan, Paul Chalakkal, Maya Ramesh, Neil De Souza, Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Rajdeep Pavaskar
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_26_18  
Context: Immobile over-retained primary teeth often deflect the path of eruption of their corresponding permanent teeth, resulting in ectopic eruption. Although various etiologies have been mentioned in literature, there is little regarding its association with consistency of diet and the presence of crowding. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between the presence of immobile over-retained primary incisors (IOPIs), the consistency of foods consumed, and the presence of crowding. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 children with IOPI were randomly selected for evaluation. The consistency (soft, medium, or hard) of the foods consumed by each child during the day was assessed. The presence of crowding in the arches, the number of IOPI present, and the length of the root of each IOPI following its extraction were also assessed. Statistical Analysis: It was carried out using the SPSS software (version 11.5, IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA). The Chi-square test and the Z test were used. Results and Conclusion: No significant association was found between IOPI, the consistency of foods consumed, and the presence of crowding.
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The prevalence of malocclusion among 10–12-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam district, Telangana: An epidemiological study p. 65
N Venugopal Reddy, M Ajay Reddy, Nadella Chandana, Toviti Karthik, V Daneswari, P Niharika
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_5_19  
Aim: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among 10–12-year-old school-going children in Khammam district of Telangana state. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 2550 schoolchildren aged 10–12 years old in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, Telangana, India, to assess the prevalence of malocclusion. An oral examination was conducted by a single trained examiner using a mouth mirror and probe. Occlusal characteristics such as molar relation, overjet, overbite, open bite, crossbite, midline deviations, midline diastema, and rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 76.6%. Of this, 65.9% of the children had Angle's Class I malocclusion, 9.25% had Class II malocclusion, and 1.37% had Class III malocclusion. About 15.4% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.2% had reverse overjet, 43.6% had increased overbite (>3 mm), 2% had open bite, 14.01% had crossbite, 46.23% had deviation of midline, 2.07% had midline diastema, and 2.98% had rotated tooth. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Khammam district of Telangana. Problems of a functional nature that arise from these morphological changes may become more complex skeletal problems in future with serious psychosocial consequences for the developing individual.
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Comparative evaluation of microleakage of Type IX Glass ionomer cement and nano-ionomer cement restoration, in cavities prepared by erbium: Yttrium, aluminum, garnet laser and conventional bur method: In vitro study p. 71
Gaurang Tamhankar, Vikas Bendgude, Madhura Pawar, Jagruti Chavan
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_20_18  
Background: A major goal of restorative dentistry is the maintenance of a marginal seal over a long period. One of the main problems in adhesive restorations is the lack of suitable adhesion to the tooth structure and microleakage between the tooth and the fi lling material. This seal can be affected by various factors, including adhesive bonding to the tooth structure, linear coeffi cient of thermal expansion, curing shrinkage, and water sorption. Longevity and stability of the treatment are the most important factors in the success rate. Providing chemical bonding between the filling material and the enamel or dentin tissue is another concern Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the Microleakage of Type IX Glass Ionomer Cement and Nano Ionomer Cement in Class V Cavities prepared by Er-YAG Laser and Conventional Bur Method. Objectives: This study compared the microleakage of Type IX Glass Ionomer Cement and Nano Ionomer Cement and Nano Ionomer Cement in Class V preparations done by Er-YAG Laser and Conventional Bur Method. Materials and Methods: Forty-four multirooted freshly extracted primary second molars were taken. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth. The cavity was standardized in the following dimensions: mesiodistal length of the cavity: 3.0 mm, occlusocervical width: 2.0 mm, and depth: 1.5 mm. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Three thousand cycles of thermocycling was used in this study to simulate oral conditions. Results: The microleakage of restorations was evaluated by measuring the dye penetration (1% Methylene Blue) under a stereomicroscope at x10 magnification at the lab, along with the image analysis software for the maximal dye penetration from the enamel margins. The value of the sections of the tooth was calculated in mm and subjected to statistical analysis.The comparison of the 4 experimental groups and the control group for apical microleakage was done using SPSS Software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post-HOC tests was performed. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that nano-fi lled resin-modifi ed glass ionomer is more advantageous than high-viscosity glass ionomers from the perspective of effective marginal sealing in Class V cavities, irrespective of the mode of cavity preparation.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A rare case of familal van der woude syndrome p. 76
Krishna Vallabhaneni, Sridhar Muktineni, Sai Sankar Jogendra Avula, Abhiram Korikani
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_7_19  
Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is a rare autosomal-dominant craniofacial disorder characterized by the lower lip pits, cleft lip, and/or cleft palate. Other associated features of VWS include ankyloglossia, high-arched palate, limb anomalies, congenital heart defects, and bifid uvula. An early and proper diagnosis followed by a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to improve the esthetics as well as the self-esteem of affected individuals. This article presents a rare case report of familial VWS with lower lip pits and highlights its peculiar clinical presentation and management.
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Case report: A novel, fixed chairside space maintainer p. 80
Yasser R Souror, Mohammed Sameer Khawandanah, Sherif E Allam, Renad A Alaishan
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_17_19  
Introduction: To prevent the dental arch deficiency after untimely loss of primary teeth, a space maintainer is employed. Space maintainers currently in use like band and loop are considered a non-aesthetic appliance. Light Cured Acrylic Resins LCAR are commonly utilized in dental practice. They provide the essential mechanical and physical properties with the necessary characteristics to be used in diverse functions in dentistry. Aim: To provide an aesthetic alternative space maintainer after premature extraction of second primary molar. Case Description: An eight-year-old healthy boy reported with a recently missing lower left second primary molar. A pink color sheet of LCAR Triad® VLC (Custom Tray) product was used to construct a space maintainer. After complete examination, full arch isolation was performed using rubber dam and suction. Both the abutment teeth were cleaned with pumice slurry and then etched with 35% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds for primary first molar and 20 seconds for the permanent first molar. The teeth were rinsed, air-dried, and wetted with an adhesive that was light-cured for 20 seconds. A thin layer of flowable composite was applied to the buccal surfaces of the abutment teeth without light-curing it. The cut length of LCAR was placed over the flowable composite extending from the buccal aspect of permanent first molar to buccal aspect of the primary second molar. The ends of the LCAR were adapted to the teeth surfaces with a plastic instrument. The composite and LCAR was light-cured for 2 minutes. for each end of LCAR.Conclusion: This case report showed that the Light Cure Acrylic Resin space maintainers can be a new alternative to the traditionally fixed space maintainers used in pediatric dentistry.
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A modification of distal shoe appliance for premature loss of primary second molar-comparison with Willet's appliance: Report of four cases p. 84
Rajesh T Anegundi, Sinjini Banerjee, Shruthi B Patil, Vijay Trasad
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_9_19  
Primary dentition is important for space maintenance, mastication, speech, and development of occlusion, premature loss of which results in space loss, deep bite, crowding, tooth impactions, and midline shift. Deciduous second molar guides the erupting first permanent molar which uprights in position after following the forward and upward path of eruption. Prevention of the space loss due to premature loss of primary second molar always been a challenge for pedodontists. Several designs of guiding appliances are proposed, the most common design being the Willet's appliance. Willet's design unable to provide broad contact often results in dislodgment of the vertical arm, slipping, and rotation of erupting molar. In this article, a modified design of the distal shoe has been compared with three other cases with Willet's appliance.
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Asymptomatic benign migratory glossitis: A rare case report p. 88
Nitin Khanduri, Sankalp Rohatgi, Deepak Kurup, Malay Mitra
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_21_18  
Benign migratory glossitis, also known as geographic tongue, is an inflammatory recurrent condition of unknown etiology, which is characterized by loss of filiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Clinically, it appears as irregular erythematous patches devoid of filiform papilla bounded by slightly elevated white bands. The lesion changes its location, pattern, and size on the tongue over time, creating a migratory appearance, and in many cases will resolve completely. It is usually an asymptomatic condition but may be associated with burning sensation to hot and spicy food. A case of geographic tongue in a 2-year-old male child is presented here. The purpose of presenting the case report is to discuss the clinical presentation, etiological factors, and treatment modalities of geographic tongue.
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