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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2018
Volume 3 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-98

Online since Wednesday, October 10, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of skeletal maturation in Indian adolescents using calcification stages of permanent mandibular second molar p. 47
Satish Chamania, Raju Umaji Patil, Amit Prakash
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_12_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth (permanent mandibular second molar) and cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 200 Indian children (98 boys and 102 girls), whose panoramic radiographs (orthopantomogram) for mandibular second molar tooth calcification stages and visual appraisals of the lateral cephalograms for CVM stages, were recorded using Demirjian Index (DI) and CVM indicator (CVMI). Results: Each stage appeared earlier in female participants than males. A highly significant association was found between DI and CVMI. Stage F and G of DI, which corresponds to Stage 3 of CVMI indicated the start of the peak in mandibular growth, which would be appropriate time to plan for growth modification appliance placement. Stage G of DI also corresponds to Stage 4 of CVMI, i.e., deceleration of adolescent growth spurt. Stage H of DI corresponding to CVMI Stages 5 and 6 indicates that the peak of mandibular growth has already occurred and is not appropriate for functional appliances. Conclusion: Mandibular second molar calcification stages are reliable skeletal maturity indicators for the evaluation of growth phases in children.
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Children's preferences for different kinds of dental attires: The concept of psychological modulation of children's behavior by different kinds of attires in dental clinics p. 53
Onkar P Haridas, Shruti R Patil, S Venu Gopal, R Susanthi, K Kongkana, Vivek Rai, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_26_17  
Context: Psychologists highlight the importance of appearance and its effect upon first impressions and the development of interpersonal relationship. How a dental surgeon dresses may be important in determining the success of dental surgeon–patient relationship. Different dental attires may evoke different feelings according to their appearances. Knowing the children's preferences for different kinds of dental attire, a dental surgeon may determine the most child-friendly attire and the care provided by dental surgeons can be, further, improved. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess children's preferences for different kinds of dental attire and to investigate and relate the influence of age, socioeconomic status, effect of media, and the previous exposure to a dental setup on children's preferences. Materials and Methods: A total of 2500 schoolchildren in the age group of 9–14 years were interviewed on their preferences individually for different kinds of dental attire followed by a questionnaire. Ten photographs of five male and five female dental surgeons in different modes of attire were shown to children and asked to give their preferences. The completely answered questionnaires by children were collected on the same day from the children and by parents the next day. Statistical Analysis Used: Collected data were compiled and analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 13, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) package. The statistical tests used for the analysis were Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and linear association. Results: The results obtained revealed that 35.6% of children preferred white coat the most followed by the attire-scrubs with cartoon (21.8%) for male dental surgeons while 38.2% of children preferred white coat followed by formal attire (28.4%) for the female dental surgeons. Conclusion: White coat is the most preferred attire by children followed by scrubs with cartoons and formal attire. Plain scrub was the least preferred. Age and socioeconomic status have definite influence on the preferences of children as lower class and higher age groups showed more inclination toward white coat. Past dental experiences and effect of media showed no significant effect on children's preferences.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health: A questionnaire survey in Bhairahawa (Nepal) p. 59
Nitin Khanduri, Namrata Singhal, Malay Mitra, Sankalp Rohatgi
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_31_17  
Background and Aim: Parents' knowledge and attitude have a very important role in the maintenance of young children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents toward their children's oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 parents participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health. Results: Majority (75%) of the parents had low knowledge regarding the importance of using fluoridated toothpaste. Only 33% of parents were aware that nighttime bottle feeding can cause dental caries. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low, and there is a need to create more awareness about the knowledge and importance of deciduous teeth, regular dental visits among the society, and implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents.
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Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of intraligamentary injection technique using articaine and lidocaine for extraction of primary mandibular posterior teeth p. 62
Shriyam Sharan, Mousumi Goswami, Rahul Kaul, Bushra Rahman, Sana Farooq
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_7_18  
Introduction: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) has been the traditional technique for achieving anesthesia of mandibular teeth. However, its failure rate and associated complications have resulted in need and quest for alternative local anesthetic techniques, of which intraligamentary injection technique is one. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of articaine hydrochloride 4% with adrenaline 1:100,000 and lidocaine hydrochloride 2% with adrenaline 1:80000 for extraction of mandibular primary teeth using intraligamentary injection technique. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted over a sample of 60 patients, aged between 6 and 10 years requiring extraction of primary mandibular posterior teeth. Patients were selected and divided randomly into two groups as follows: Group A received anesthesia through intraligamentary injection containing articaine hydrochloride 4% with adrenaline 1:100,000 and Group B containing lidocaine hydrochloride 2% with adrenaline 1:80,000. Sound eye motor scale was used to assess pain perception for each group. On failure of completion of extraction, IANB technique was employed. Results: The success rate of intraligamentary injection within articaine group was 80%, and lidocaine group was 30% with the mean SEM scores (± standard deviation) on administration of lidocaine group were higher than articaine group. Conclusion: Intraligamentary technique with articaine may be an alternate to IANB for extraction of primary mandibular molars.
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Premature loss of primary teeth on arch dimensions in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state p. 67
N Venugopal Reddy, V Daneswari, G Shruti, Harivinder Reddy, Ajay Reddy, Srikanth Reddy
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_28_17  
Background: The primary dentition plays a very important role in the child's growth and development, not only in terms of speech, chewing, appearance, and prevention of habits but also in the guidance and eruption of permanent teeth. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren in Khammam town, Telangana state, India. Settings and Design: A total of 1200 schoolchildren (600 boys and 600 girls) between 6 and 10 years of age were randomly selected for the study. Materials and Methods: An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth were collected. Alginate impressions of the study population with the missing teeth were taken, and diagnostic casts were prepared. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics were applied, and from the results, Chi-square tests were applied at a level of statistical significance of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was 13.5% of the study sample. It was higher in 8-year-olds, and lower right first primary molars were the most commonly affected teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth was high, and the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth. Dental caries was main reason for premature loss of primary teeth followed by trauma.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Impacted mesiodentes with an inverted one: A rare case report and literature review p. 72
E J Akhil Jose, Prashant Babaji, KK Shashibhushan
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_10_18  
Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition and also resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Mesiodens is the erupted or unerupted extra tooth in the midline of the maxilla, along with normal teeth (between the central incisors). Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary for the prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. The inverted conical mesiodens is frequently associated with cystic lesions and can erupt into the nasal floor, becoming more difficult to remove with time. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about the management of bilateral impacted mesiodentes including the inverted type cases with unusual location, which might assist the clinician in decision-making.
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Clinical management of a complicated crown-root fracture of maxillary central incisor in a 12-year-old patient p. 76
Ashveeta J Shetty, Farhin Katge, Manohar Poojari, Chirag Punamiya
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_8_18  
Traumatic injuries to permanent maxillary anterior teeth are seen commonly in children. Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of these teeth is important. A 12-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry with fracture of the permanent maxillary right central incisor. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a complicated crown-root fracture. This case report describes the management of complicated crown-root fracture by endodontic therapy, orthodontic extrusion, fiber post placement, core build-up with composite, and esthetic restoration using polycarbonate crown.
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Early oral rehabilitation of amelogenesis imperfecta: A case series p. 80
Kashika Arora, Deepa Vinod Bhat, Malay Mitra, Subrata Saha
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_2_18  
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary developmental disorder affecting deposition, calcification, or maturation of dental enamel. In general, it affects all or nearly all of the teeth in both the primary and permanent dentitions leading to functional as well as esthetic inadequacies. Henceforth, early recognition followed by appropriate preventive care and oral rehabilitation is essential in the successful management of AI. This clinical report discusses the oral rehabilitation of 12-year-old boy diagnosed with hypoplastic type of AI. Management strategies include composite resin veneers for anterior teeth and stainless steel crown (SSC) for posterior teeth and management of 7-year -old girl with hypoplastic AI using SSCs. This approach decreased tooth sensitivity and enhanced esthetics, masticated function, and boosted the self-esteem of the patient.
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Modified band and loop space maintainer: Mayne's space maintainer p. 84
Joyson Moses, P Krithika Sekar, S Shanthosh Raj, BN Rangeeth, Sharanya Ravindran
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_4_18  
Primary teeth play a pivotal role in preventing malocclusion of permanent dentition. When there is premature tooth loss, the space should be maintained for preserving the arch form and preventing space loss. Space maintainer is the treatment of choice in such conditions. When the conventional method is not applicable, we plan for modifications. In this clinical scenario, we have modified the crown and loop space maintainer with a single loop known as the Mayne's space maintainer.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Top

Prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors: A systematic review p. 87
Krishnapriya Suhas Nene, Vikas Bendgude
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_14_18  
The objective of this systematic review is to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to evaluate clinically and radiographically the prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors in the pediatric age group with an immature or mature apex having an extraoral dry time up to 60 min and a follow-up period of 24 months or more. The study inclusion criteria included case reports and case series published in English. Databases used for the search were PubMed, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, and Cochrane from January 1, 2000 to September 30, 2017. In addition, hand search of dissertations and journals on pediatric dentistry related to the topic of interest was performed in the institutional library. Contact to authors and colleagues working on similar subjects in the field was made through e-mails. Based on the moderate level of evidence available to assess the prognosis of replanted avulsed permanent incisors by clinical and radiographic evaluation, it is fair to conclude that the prognosis of the replanted teeth was best when the extraoral dry time was <15 min and the tooth was stored in osmolality-balanced media such as Hank's balanced salt solution, saline, and milk. The immature teeth showed better prognosis than mature teeth.
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