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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-40

Online since Friday, April 19, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Laser and its use in pediatric dentistry: A review of literature and a recent update Highly accessed article p. 1
Sauvik Galui, Shubhabrata Pal, Saikat Mahata, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_17_18  
Since last two decades, the use of laser in dentistry evolved in an immense way. Although soft-tissue laser was initially introduced, but with invention of new-generation laser, it is now widely used on dental hard tissue as well. Commonly used laser in dentistry includes neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser, erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet, CO2, erbium chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet, holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet, and diode laser. Treating a pediatric patient with laser for oral and dental procedure is beneficial as it is less fearful to the child and better accepted by parents. When a clinician uses the laser for surgical or pulpal procedure, children become more cooperative and thus enhances treatment outcome. It is used for caries prevention, early diagnosis, cavity restoration, management of traumatized teeth, and minor oral surgical procedure in child patients. Although the use of laser may produce certain hazards and need some precautions, its use in pediatric dental practice seems to soon become the gold standard.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molars in Karnataka (South Indian) population p. 6
Mebin George Mathew, Ashu Jagdish Soni
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_24_18  
Background: The occurrence of an extra distal root in primary mandibular first molars is relevant clinically for the delivery of optimal care. However, there have been no studies conducted for establishing the prevalence of same in the South Indian population.Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molars in children of Davangere, Karnataka.Materials and Methods: Children aged 3–10 years, who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs of bilateral primary mandibular first molars, obtained from 77 patients, were investigated for the presence of additional root. A total of 154 primary mandibular first molars were examined.Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis.Results: The total occurrence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molar among the study participants was 1.3%. There was noted an equal distribution among boys and girls (1:1). Both the three-rooted primary first molar occurred on the right side with no bilateral occurrence noted.Conclusion: Primary mandibular first molar can display several anatomical variations, most frequently supernumerary root located distolingually. Hence, pedodontists should be alert in the identification of additional roots and to make necessary treatment modifications.
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Prevalence and type of mesiodens among 3–14-year-old children in West Bengal: An institutional study p. 9
Shubhabrata Pal, Sauvik Galui, Raju Biswas, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_33_18  
Introduction: Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth which is most commonly located in between or palatal to the two maxillary central incisors. It is a developmental anomaly and can be single or multiple in number. The overall prevalence is reported between 0.09% and 2.05%. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal prospective study which was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry of Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital of West Bengal among 6332 children between 3 and 14 years age group. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done regarding position, morphology, malocclusion, and eruption status. Results: About 0.69% of prevalence was noted. Nearly 70.45% were found in mixed dentition, 27.27% were in permanent dentition, and 2.27% were in primary dentition. Regarding shape, 68.18% were conical, 25% were tuberculate, and 6.81% were supplemental. Regarding position, 52.27% mesiodens were found to be present palatal to maxillary dental arch, 38.63% were found on the arch, and 9.09% were found buccal to the maxillary dental arch. Malocclusion was also evaluated. Moreover, a male predominance regarding the occurrence of mesiodens was also noted. Conclusion: The present study not only depicts the prevalence of mesiodens among 3–14-year-old children in West Bengal but also it aimed to give an insight regarding their form, number, position, and axis of orientation. It also aimed to evaluate the presence of malocclusion due to mesiodens if any so that planning of treatment can be done accordingly and more effectively.
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Clinical evaluation of rotary system over manual system in deciduous molars: A clinical trial p. 13
Prashant Babaji, Vanisha Mehta, Thomas Manjooran
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_27_18  
Background: Primary teeth need special attention since they differ from permanent teeth in canal morphology and tendency for root resorption. The present study was conducted to compare manual and rotary instrumentation techniques in deciduous teeth. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 patients (boys – 60, girls – 60) in the age range of 5–12 years. Patients were divided into two groups of sixty each. Group I patients were treated with rotary files and Group II patients with manual technique. Time taken for instrumentation and obturating the canals in both groups was recorded. The quality of filling was labeled as optimal, underfilled, and overfilled. Results: The mean instrumentation time in Group I was 12.4 min and in Group II was 18.2 min. Chi-square test showed highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The mean filling time in Group I was 1.4 min and in Group II was 2.6 min. In Group I, in 92%, filling was optimal, whereas in Group II, 76% had optimal filling, 5% in Group I and 14% in Group II had overfilling, and 3% in Group I and 10% in Group II had underfilling. Conclusion: In the present study, we found lesser instrumentation time and filling time with rotary system compared to manual endodontic method.
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Knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of early childhood caries among general dental practitioners of Gujarat, India: A questionnaire study p. 17
Chirag M Vaghela, Shantanu R Choudhari, Parikrama J Solanki, Sandip I Saxena, Dipak K Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_13_18  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of knowledge and awareness regarding early childhood caries (ECC) among general dental practitioners of Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: A list of inquiries by means of questionnaires for gauging the knowledge regarding ECC was sent via E-mail to 500 general dental practitioners utilizing Google online survey form. Results: The results were based on the answers given by the participants according to their own perception and were quantified accordingly with the help of a pie chart. Conclusion: Although Dental Practitioners have good awareness regarding ECC, there is a need to update their knowledge in order to contribute towards the prevention and treatment of ECC.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices of school teachers toward dental caries and prevention in Tirupati City, Andhra Pradesh p. 22
K Veerakishore Kumar Reddy, R Venketsubramaniyan, Harshini Togaru, Srinivasan Krishna, K Naveen Krishna, Lakshmi Prasanna
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_15_18  
Background: The most significant period of a child's life is spent at school, and it is here that their lifetime beliefs and habits develop. A school-based program is most effective because children are approached at a time when their health habits are forming. Teachers are considered as role models to transmit values of life. To instill, healthy preventive oral habits, the teachers themselves need to have a good knowledge and attitude toward oral health.Aim: The aim of this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practices of school teachers toward dental caries and prevention. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers in Tirupati city. A pretested structured questionnaire related to dental caries and its preventive measures were used, and 100 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude, and practices regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding dental caries in children, and status of oral health education (OHE) at the schools. Results: Around 55% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugars are the main causes of dental caries. Around 57% of the teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 58% of the participants felt it is necessary to visit the dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers expressed the need for OHE programs at the school level, only 43% agreed that it is their duty to impart OHE to the students. Conclusion: The knowledge and attitude of school teachers about dental caries and its current preventive methods seem to be incomplete. As a pedodontist, there is a need to educate the teachers regarding oral healthcare in children and to update their knowledge by conducting OHE programs within a school setting, and further studies should be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Traumatic intraoral herniation of the buccal pad of fat in pediatric patients: Report of two cases p. 26
Chiranjit Ghosh, Biswanath Jana, Diptangshu Garai, Pradip Kumar Mandal
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_19_18  
Intraoral herniation of the buccal pad of fat is commonly occurring in the pediatric group of population. It frequently presents as an expanding pedunculated nontender, soft, nonpulsatile yellowish mass in the buccal mucosa at the level of the maxillary occlusal plane. The most common cause is traumatic injury. This article presents two such cases where extrusion of the pad of fat successfully managed by surgical excision.
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Impaction of mandibular premolar with an atypical foreign object p. 31
Chaitali Keshav Mirajkar
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_5_18  
Children have a habit of inserting different types of foreign objects such as stapler pins, darning needles, toothpicks, and leads of pencil in a carious tooth. Most of the reported cases in literature involve maxillary central incisor. This is an unusual case report of an 11-year-old boy who had a foreign object impacted in the root canal of the mandibular premolar. A sewing needle was inserted in the root canal of the mandibular premolar. Nonsurgical management approach was used to remove the foreign object followed by proper obturation of the involved tooth.
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Gap arthroplasty with custom-made acrylic mouth opener p. 34
PJ Nagarathna, Dimple Tirale, B Paramod Krishna, Rajdeep Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_11_18  
Ankylosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involves the fusion of mandibular condyle to the base of the skull. When it occurs in a child, it can have devastating effects on the future growth, development of jaws and teeth, and also has a negative influence on the psychosocial development of the patient because of the obvious facial deformity, which worsens with growth. Impairment of speech and mastication, poor oral hygiene, caries, and compromise airway pose a severe psychological burden on the tender minds of children. Hereby, we present a case of 10-year-old female who reported with inability to open mouth, diagnosed with right bony TMJ ankylosis. The surgical approach consisted of gap arthroplasty followed by vigorous physiotherapy by custom-made acrylic mouth opener. The treatment of TMJ ankylosis poses a significant challenge because of technical difficulties and a high incidence of recurrence. It includes a team of oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pediatric dentist, and anesthetist.
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Management of impacted primary maxillary central incisor: A report p. 37
Shubhabrata Pal, Raju Biswas, Sauvik Galui, Santanu Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ijpr.ijpr_30_18  
Impaction of primary tooth is a rare and unusual finding, particularly in the maxillary anterior segment. A variety of reasons are listed in literature for such condition. Here is a case report of impacted primary maxillary left central incisor in a 4-year-old child. The condition was diagnosed with the help of clinical examination, intraoral periapical radiograph, and cone-beam computed tomography. The tooth was surgically removed, and the patient was asked for periodic check-up.
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